# Math.log()

The Math.log() function returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a number, that is

$∀x>0,Math.log(x)=ln(x)=the uniqueysuch thatey=x\forall x > 0, \mathtt{\operatorname{Math.log}(x)} = \ln(x) = \text{the unique} \; y \; \text{such that} \; e^y = x$

The JavaScript Math.log() function is equivalent to ln(x) in mathematics.

## Syntax

Math.log(x)

### Parameters

x
A number.

### Return value

The natural logarithm (base e) of the given number. If the number is negative, NaN is returned.

## Description

If the value of x is 0, the return value is always -Infinity.

If the value of x is negative, the return value is always NaN.

Because log() is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.log(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created (Math is not a constructor).

If you need the natural log of 2 or 10, use the constants Math.LN2 or Math.LN10 .  If you need a logarithm to base 2 or 10, use Math.log2() or Math.log10() .  If you need a logarithm to other bases, use Math.log(x) / Math.log(otherBase) as in the example below; you might want to precalculate 1 / Math.log(otherBase) .

## Examples

### Using Math.log()

Math.log(-1); // NaN, out of range
Math.log(0);  // -Infinity
Math.log(1);  // 0
Math.log(10); // 2.302585092994046


### Using Math.log() with a different base

The following function returns the logarithm of y with base x (ie. $\log_x y$):

function getBaseLog(x, y) {
return Math.log(y) / Math.log(x);
}


If you run getBaseLog(10, 1000) it returns 2.9999999999999996 due to floating-point rounding, which is very close to the actual answer of 3.

## Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Math.log' in that specification.

## Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
Desktop Mobile Server Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support 3 Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support 1 WebView Android Full support 1 Chrome Android Full support 18 Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support 1 Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0 nodejs Full support Yes

Full support
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