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The HTML <hgroup> element represents a multi-level heading for a section of a document. It groups a set of <h1>–<h6> elements.
HTML <hgroup> element代表文档章节所属的多级别的目录,它将多个<h1>至<h6>的子元素组装到一起。

Its text for the outline algorithm is the text of the first HTML Heading Element of highest rank (i.e., the first <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5> or <h6> with the smallest number among its descendants) and the rank is the rank of this very same HTML Heading Element.

它显示的文本,是采用具体较高排名的标题元素的,按照依次组合的组合算法进行组合(具体是指,这些<h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5> 或者<h6>元素中数字最小的标题),最终排名则是最相近的HTML Heading元素。

Therefore this element groups several headings, contributing only the main one to the outline of the document. It allows associating secondary titles, like subheadings, alternative titles, or even taglines, with the main heading, without polluting the outline of the document.

Content categories Flow content, heading content, palpable content.
Permitted content One or more <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, and/or <h6>.
Tag omission 不允许,开始标签和结束标签都不能省略。
Permitted parent elements Any element that accepts flow content.
Permitted ARIA roles tab, presentation
DOM interface HTMLElement

Attributes 属性


Usage notes 使用备注

The <hgroup> element has been removed from the HTML5 (W3C) specification, but it still is in the WHATWG version of HTML. It is partially implemented in most browsers, though, so is unlikely to go away.
However, given that a key purpose of the <hgroup> element is to affect how headings are displayed by the outline algorithm defined in the HTML specification—but the HTML outline algorithm is not implemented in any browsers—then the <hgroup> semantics are in practice only theoretical.
So the HTML5 (W3C) specification provides advice on how to mark up Subheadings, subtitles, alternative titles and taglines without using <hgroup>.

注意: 本元素已经从HTML5(W3C)规范中删除,但是它仍旧在 WHATWG 的 HTML 版本里。大多数浏览器都部分地实现,所以它不太可能消失。 
然而,考虑到<hgroup>元素的一个关键存在目标是明确HTML规范中如何显示标题的轮廓算法,但因为其轮廓算法(outline algorithm)未在任何浏览器中实现,因此 <hgroup> 语义仍旧是理论上的建议。
HTML5 (W3C) 规范提供了如何标记副标题,小标题,可选标题和标语(Subheadings, subtitles, alternative titles and taglines)的建议。

The <hgroup> element allows the primary heading for a document section to be grouped with any secondary headings—such as subheadings or alternative titles—to form a multi-level heading.

In other words, the <hgroup> element prevents any of its secondary <h1>–<h6> children from creating separate sections of their own in the outline—as those <h1>–<h6> elements otherwise normally would if they were not children of any <hgroup>.

So in the abstract outline produced by the HTML outline algorithm defined in the HTML specification, the <hgroup> as a whole forms a single logical heading, with the entire set of <h1>–<h6> children of the <hgroup> going into the outline as one multi-level unit, to comprise that single logical heading in the abstract outline.

To produce any (non-abstract) rendered view of such an outline, some choice must be made in the design of the rendering tool about how to render <hgroup> headings in such a way as to convey their multi-level nature. There are a variety of ways an <hgroup> might be shown in a rendered outline; for example:

  • an <hgroup> might be shown in a rendered outline in with a colon character and space (“”) or other such punctuation after the primary heading and before the first secondary heading (and with the same or similar punctuation before any other secondary headings
  • an <hgroup> might be shown in a rendered outline in with the primary heading followed by parentheses around the secondary heading(s)

Consider the following HTML document:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<title>HTML Standard</title>
  <hgroup id="document-title">
    <h2>Living Standard — Last Updated 12 August 2016</h2>
  <p>Some intro to the document.</p>
  <h2>Table of contents</h2>
  <ol id=toc>...</ol>
  <h2>First section</h2>
  <p>Some intro to the first section.</p>

A rendered outline for that document might look like the following:

That is, the rendered outline might show the primary title, HTML, followed by a colon and space, followed by the secondary title, Living Standard — Last Updated 12 August 2016.

Or, the rendered outline for that document might instead look like the following:

Rendered outline that includes an <hgroup> element, with parens around the secondary heading

That is, the rendered outline might show the primary title, HTML, followed by the secondary title shown in parentheses: (Living Standard — Last Updated 12 August 2016).

Examples 例子

  <h1>Main title</h1>
  <h2>Secondary title</h2>

Browser compatibility 浏览器兼容性

We're converting our compatibility data into a machine-readable JSON format. This compatibility table still uses the old format, because we haven't yet converted the data it contains. Find out how you can help!
Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 5 4.0 (2.0) 9.0 11.10 4.1
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 2.2 4.0 (2.0) 9.0 11.0 5.0

See also 参见