Referrer-Policy

Referrer-Policy 首部用来监管哪些访问来源信息——会在 Referer  中发送——应该被包含在生成的请求当中。
Header type Response header
Forbidden header name no

语法

注意 Referer 实际上是单词 "referrer" 的错误拼写。Referrer-Policy 这个首部并没有延续这个错误拼写。

Referrer-Policy: no-referrer
Referrer-Policy: no-referrer-when-downgrade
Referrer-Policy: origin
Referrer-Policy: origin-when-cross-origin
Referrer-Policy: same-origin
Referrer-Policy: strict-origin
Referrer-Policy: strict-origin-when-cross-origin
Referrer-Policy: unsafe-url

指令

no-referrer
整个 Referer  首部会被移除。访问来源信息不随着请求一起发送。
no-referrer-when-downgrade (默认值)
在没有指定任何策略的情况下用户代理的默认行为。在同等安全级别的情况下,引用页面的地址会被发送(HTTPS->HTTPS),但是在降级的情况下不会被发送 (HTTPS->HTTP)。
origin
在任何情况下,仅发送文件的源作为引用地址。例如  https://example.com/page.html 会将 https://example.com/ 作为引用地址。
origin-when-cross-origin
对于同源的请求,会发送完整的URL作为引用地址,但是对于非同源请求仅发送文件的源。
same-origin
对于同源的请求会发送引用地址,但是对于非同源请求则不发送引用地址信息。
strict-origin
在同等安全级别的情况下,发送文件的源作为引用地址(HTTPS->HTTPS),但是在降级的情况下不会发送 (HTTPS->HTTP)。
strict-origin-when-cross-origin
对于同源的请求,会发送完整的URL作为引用地址;在同等安全级别的情况下,发送文件的源作为引用地址(HTTPS->HTTPS);在降级的情况下不发送此首部 (HTTPS->HTTP)。
unsafe-url
无论是同源请求还是非同源请求,都发送完整的 URL(移除参数信息之后)作为引用地址。
这项设置会将受 TLS 安全协议保护的资源的源和路径信息泄露给非安全的源服务器。进行此项设置的时候要慎重考虑。

集成到 HTML

你也可以在 HTML 内设置 referrer 策略。例如,你可以用一个 name 为 referrer 的 <meta> 元素为整个文档设置 referrer 策略。

<meta name="referrer" content="origin">

或者用 <a><area><img><iframe><script> 或者 <link> 元素上的 referrerpolicy 属性为其设置独立的请求策略。

<a href="http://example.com" referrerpolicy="origin">

另外也可以在 <a><area> 或者 <link> 元素上将 rel 属性设置为 noreferrer

<a href="http://example.com" rel="noreferrer">

集成到 CSS

CSS 可以从样式表获取引用的资源,这些资源也可以遵从 referrer 策略:

  • 外部 CSS 样式表使用默认策略 (no-referrer-when-downgrade),除非 CSS 样式表的响应消息通过 Referrer-Policy 首部覆盖该策略。
  • 对于 <style> 元素或 style 属性,则遵从文档的 referrer 策略。

示例

Policy Document Navigation to Referrer
no-referrer https://example.com/page.html any domain or path no referrer
no-referrer-when-downgrade https://example.com/page.html https://example.com/otherpage.html https://example.com/page.html
no-referrer-when-downgrade https://example.com/page.html https://mozilla.org https://example.com/page.html
no-referrer-when-downgrade https://example.com/page.html http://example.org no referrer
origin https://example.com/page.html any domain or path https://example.com/
origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html https://example.com/otherpage.html https://example.com/page.html
origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html https://mozilla.org https://example.com/
origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html http://example.com/page.html https://example.com/
same-origin https://example.com/page.html https://example.com/otherpage.html https://example.com/page.html
same-origin https://example.com/page.html https://mozilla.org no referrer
strict-origin https://example.com/page.html https://mozilla.org https://example.com/
strict-origin https://example.com/page.html http://example.org no referrer
strict-origin http://example.com/page.html any domain or path http://example.com/
strict-origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html https://example.com/otherpage.html https://example.com/page.html
strict-origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html https://mozilla.org https://example.com/
strict-origin-when-cross-origin https://example.com/page.html http://example.org no referrer
unsafe-url https://example.com/page.html any domain or path https://example.com/page.html

指定后备策略

如果你要为那些策略未获广泛的浏览器支持的情况指定一种后备策略,使用逗号分隔的列表,并将希望使用的策略放在最后:

Referrer-Policy: no-referrer, strict-origin-when-cross-origin

在上面的场景中,no-referrer 仅在 strict-origin-when-cross-origin 不被浏览器支持的情况下被使用。

规范

规范 状态
Referrer Policy 草稿

浏览器兼容性

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Referrer-PolicyChrome Full support 56Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 50IE No support NoOpera Full support 43Safari Full support 11.1WebView Android Full support 56Chrome Android Full support 56Firefox Android Full support 50Opera Android Full support 43Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 7.2
same-originChrome Full support 61Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 52IE No support NoOpera Full support 48Safari Full support 11.1WebView Android Full support 61Chrome Android Full support 61Firefox Android Full support 52Opera Android Full support 45Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 7.2
strict-originChrome Full support 61Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 52IE No support NoOpera Full support 48Safari Full support 11.1WebView Android Full support 61Chrome Android Full support 61Firefox Android Full support 52Opera Android Full support 45Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 7.2
strict-origin-when-cross-originChrome Full support 61Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 52IE No support NoOpera Full support 48Safari Full support 11.1WebView Android Full support 61Chrome Android Full support 61Firefox Android Full support 52Opera Android Full support 45Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 7.2

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support

注意: 从版本 53 起,Gecko 在 about:config 中提供了一项偏好设置,使得用户可以自行设定默认的 Referrer-Policy 值 —— network.http.referer.userControlPolicy 。可选的值包括:

  • 0 — no-referrer
  • 1 — same-origin
  • 2 — strict-origin-when-cross-origin
  • 3 — no-referrer-when-downgrade (the default)

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