Remainder (%)

The remainder operator (%) returns the remainder left over when one operand is divided by a second operand. It always takes the sign of the dividend.

Note that while in most languages, ‘%’ is a remainder operator, in some (e.g. Python, Perl) it is a modulo operator. For positive values, the two are equivalent, but when the dividend and divisor are of different signs, they give different results. To obtain a modulo in JavaScript, in place of a % n, use ((a % n ) + n ) % n.

Syntax

Operator: var1 % var2

Examples

Remainder with positive dividend

 12 % 5  //  2
 1 % -2 //  1
 1 % 2  //  1
 2 % 3  //  2
5.5 % 2 // 1.5

Remainder with negative dividend

-12 % 5 // -2
-1 % 2  // -1
-4 % 2  // -0

Remainder with NaN

NaN % 2 // NaN

Remainder with Infinity

Infinity % 2 // NaN
Infinity % 0 // NaN
Infinity % Infinity // NaN

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Remainder operator' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

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ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
Remainder (%)Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 3Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100

Legend

Full support  
Full support

See also