Array.prototype.includes()

includes() 方法會判斷陣列是否包含特定的元素,並以此來回傳 truefalse

語法

arr.includes(searchElement[, fromIndex])

參數

searchElement
要搜尋的元素。
fromIndex 選擇性
要於此陣列中開始搜尋 searchElement 的位置。如為負數值,則自 array.length + fromIndex 開始向後搜尋。預設值為 0。

回傳值

布林值(Boolean)。

範例

[1, 2, 3].includes(2);     // true
[1, 2, 3].includes(4);     // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, 3);  // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, -1); // true
[1, 2, NaN].includes(NaN); // true

fromIndex 大於或等於陣列長度

如果 fromIndex大於或等於陣列長度, 會回傳false. 此陣列將不會被搜尋.

var arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('c', 3);   // false
arr.includes('c', 100); // false

Computed index is less than 0

If fromIndex is negative, the computed index is calculated to be used as a position in the array at which to begin searching for searchElement. If the computed index is less than 0, the entire array will be searched.

// array length is 3
// fromIndex is -100
// computed index is 3 + (-100) = -97

var arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('a', -100); // true
arr.includes('b', -100); // true
arr.includes('c', -100); // true

includes() used as a generic method

includes() method is intentionally generic. It does not require this value to be an Array object, so it can be applied to other kinds of objects (e.g. array-like objects). The example below illustrates includes() method called on the function's arguments object.

(function() {
  console.log([].includes.call(arguments, 'a')); // true
  console.log([].includes.call(arguments, 'd')); // false
})('a','b','c');

Polyfill

// https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/#sec-array.prototype.includes
if (!Array.prototype.includes) {
  Object.defineProperty(Array.prototype, 'includes', {
    value: function(searchElement, fromIndex) {

      if (this == null) {
        throw new TypeError('"this" is null or not defined');
      }

      // 1. Let O be ? ToObject(this value).
      var o = Object(this);

      // 2. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(O, "length")).
      var len = o.length >>> 0;

      // 3. If len is 0, return false.
      if (len === 0) {
        return false;
      }

      // 4. Let n be ? ToInteger(fromIndex).
      //    (If fromIndex is undefined, this step produces the value 0.)
      var n = fromIndex | 0;

      // 5. If n ≥ 0, then
      //  a. Let k be n.
      // 6. Else n < 0,
      //  a. Let k be len + n.
      //  b. If k < 0, let k be 0.
      var k = Math.max(n >= 0 ? n : len - Math.abs(n), 0);

      function sameValueZero(x, y) {
        return x === y || (typeof x === 'number' && typeof y === 'number' && isNaN(x) && isNaN(y));
      }

      // 7. Repeat, while k < len
      while (k < len) {
        // a. Let elementK be the result of ? Get(O, ! ToString(k)).
        // b. If SameValueZero(searchElement, elementK) is true, return true.
        if (sameValueZero(o[k], searchElement)) {
          return true;
        }
        // c. Increase k by 1.
        k++;
      }

      // 8. Return false
      return false;
    }
  });
}

If you need to support truly obsolete JavaScript engines that don't support Object.defineProperty, it's best not to polyfill Array.prototype methods at all, as you can't make them non-enumerable.

規範

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2016 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.includes' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.includes' in that specification.
Living Standard

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