<html>: The HTML Document / Root element

The HTML <html> element represents the root (top-level element) of an HTML document, so it is also referred to as the root element. All other elements must be descendants of this element.

Content categories None.
Permitted content One <head> element, followed by one <body> element.
Tag omission The start tag may be omitted if the first thing inside the <html> element is not a comment.
The end tag may be omitted if the <html> element is not immediately followed by a comment.
Permitted parents None. This is the root element of a document.
Implicit ARIA role No corresponding role
Permitted ARIA roles No role permitted
DOM interface HTMLHtmlElement

Attributes

This element includes the global attributes.

manifest This deprecated API should no longer be used, but will probably still work.
Specifies the URI of a resource manifest indicating resources that should be cached locally. See Using the application cache for details.
version This deprecated API should no longer be used, but will probably still work.
Specifies the version of the HTML Document Type Definition that governs the current document. This attribute is not needed, because it is redundant with the version information in the document type declaration.
xmlns
Specifies the XML Namespace of the document. Default value is "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml". This is required in documents parsed with XML parsers, and optional in text/html documents.

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>...</head>
  <body>...</body>
</html>

Accessibility concerns

Providing a lang attribute with a valid IETF identifying language tag on the <html> element will help screen reading technology determine the proper language to announce. The identifying language tag should describe the language used by the majority of the content of the page. Without it, screen readers will typically default to the operating system's set language, which may cause mispronunciations.

Including a valid lang declaration on the <html> element also ensures that important metadata contained in the page's <head>, such as the page's <title>, are also announced properly.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of '<html>' in that specification.
Living Standard
HTML5
The definition of '<html>' in that specification.
Recommendation Added support for the manifest attribute (deprecated later).
Obsoleted the version attribute
HTML 4.01 Specification
The definition of '<html>' in that specification.
Recommendation Deprecated the version attribute

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also

  • MathML top-level element: <math>
  • SVG top-level element: <svg>