The text-combine-upright CSS property sets the combination of characters into the space of a single character. If the combined text is wider than 1em, the user agent must fit the contents within 1em. The resulting composition is treated as a single upright glyph for layout and decoration. This property only has an effect in vertical writing modes.

This is used to produce an effect that is known as tate-chū-yoko (縦中横) in Japanese, or as 直書橫向 in Chinese.

/* Keyword values */
text-combine-upright: none;
text-combine-upright: all;

/* Digits values */
text-combine-upright: digits;     /* fits 2 consecutive digits horizontally inside vertical text */
text-combine-upright: digits 4;   /* fits up to 4 consecutive digits horizontally inside vertical text */

/* Global values */
text-combine-upright: inherit;
text-combine-upright: initial;
text-combine-upright: unset;



There is no special processing.
Attempts to typeset all consecutive characters within the box horizontally, such that they take up the space of a single character within the vertical line of the box.
digits <integer>?
Attempts to display a sequence of consecutive ASCII digits (U+0030–U+0039) that has as many or fewer characters than the specified integer, such that it takes up the space of a single character within the vertical line box. If the integer is omitted, it computes to 2. Integers outside the range of 2-4 are invalid.

Formal definition

Initial valuenone
Applies tonon-replaced inline elements
Computed valuespecified keyword, plus integer if 'digits'
Animation typeNot animatable

Formal syntax

none | all | [ digits <integer>? ]



The digits value requires less markup than the all value when digits are being combined, but it is currently not very widely supported by browsers.


<p lang="ja" class="exampleText">平成20年4月16日に</p>


.exampleText {
  writing-mode: vertical-lr;
  text-combine-upright: digits 2;
  font: 36px serif;


ScreenshotLive sample


The all value requires markup around every piece of horizontal text, but it is currently supported by more browsers than the digits value.


<p lang="zh-Hant">民國<span class="num">105</span
><span class="num">4</span
><span class="num">29</span></p>


html { writing-mode: vertical-rl; font: 24px serif }
.num { text-combine-upright: all }


ScreenshotLive sample


Specification Status Comment
CSS Writing Modes Level 4
The definition of 'text-combine-upright' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Add digits value
CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3
The definition of 'text-combine-upright' in that specification.
Proposed Recommendation Initial definition

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also