orphans

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The orphans CSS property sets the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be shown at the bottom of a page, region, or column.

/* <integer> values */
orphans: 2;
orphans: 3;

/* Global values */
orphans: inherit;
orphans: initial;
orphans: unset;

In typography, an orphan is the first line of a paragraph that appears alone at the bottom of a page. (The paragraph continues on a following page.)

Initial value2
Applies toblock container elements
Inheritedyes
Mediavisual
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderper grammar

Syntax

Values

<integer>
The minimum number of lines that can stay by themselves at the bottom of a fragment before a fragmentation break. The value must be positive.

Formal syntax

<integer>

Example

HTML

<div>
  <p>This is the first paragraph containing some text.</p>
  <p>This is the second paragraph containing some more text than the first one. It is used to demonstrate how widows work.</p>
  <p>This is the third paragraph. It has a little bit more text than the first one.</p>
</div>

CSS

div {
  background-color: #8cffa0;
  height: 150px;
  columns: 3;
  orphans: 3;
}

p {
  background-color: #8ca0ff;
}

p:first-child {
  margin-top: 0;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Extends orphans to apply to any type of fragment, including pages, regions, or columns.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
orphansChrome Full support 25Edge Full support 12Firefox No support NoIE Full support 8Opera Full support 9.2Safari Full support 1.3WebView Android Full support ≤37Chrome Android Full support 25Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android ? Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown

See also